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Unit 6--Civil War and Reconstruction (1861-1877)

By 1861, sectional issues over states’ rights, influence over national politics, and slavery erupted in a Civil War between the Union and Confederacy. With a larger population, industrial capacity, and railroad network, the Union army was able to erode the South’s greatest strengths, its military leadership and defensive strategy. Key battles turned the tide of the war: Antietam brought an end to “King Cotton diplomacy” and a shift in the Union goal from “preserve the Union” to the emancipation of slaves. Gettysburg marked the beginning of Union success on the battlefield. When the war ended after Appomattox, the U.S. government was divided in how to bring Southern states back into the Union and protect emancipated slaves. President Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plan (1865-1867) proved too lenient and offered little protection for African-Americans and was replaced with a more strict policy developed by Radical Republicans. Despite military districts, new Constitutional amendments, and a Freedman’s Bureau, the national government could not sustain Reconstruction attempts against white resistance, Redeemer Democrats, and the KKK. As a result of the “second corrupt bargain,” President Hayes ended Reconstruction in 1877. 

For U.S. History unit 6 notes, click here
Brooks Baggett,
Oct 20, 2013, 5:49 PM